|Learning Strategies - Reading
Decoding refers to the child’s ability to link the sounds to the letter or letter patterns to decipher unknown words. As children become proficient with recognizing letters and associating their sounds to letters, then activities that focus on word building can be implemented.
- To help notice similarities and differences
among words, have children write as
many words that contain a word family as they
can. After they generate words,
have them read the words, circle the differences
among the words and underline the patterns of
words in their list. This will help children
to recognize onsets and rhymes.
Incorporate writing activities to provide opportunities for students to link sound to print and words to meaning.
Words: Multilevel, Hands-on Developmentally
Appropriate Spelling and Phonics Activities by Patricia Cunningham has useful exercises
to help children explore how words change when
letters and sounds in words are altered.
- Play games like hangman to
teach specific word strategies and generalizations. For
example, when selecting letters, point out that
every word must have a vowel. Games like hangman
provide opportunities to work with spelling
and the general guidelines of word structure.
- Play Scrabble, Jr. or Scrabble. This will encourage children to think and to
generate words as well as provide spelling practice.
Teach students specific strategies to
decode words. Have students use scripted
analogies or key words to identify patterns
that can be used in recognizing other words
that contain the same pattern. The Word Detective
Program developed by Irene Gaskins directs children
to use analogies such as, "if I know cat,
then I know sat" to recognize the
relationships among words to support decoding.
- Direct students to locate smaller words within larger words.
- Have students learn to recognize common endings such as –ing, -ed, and separate the endings from the root or base word.