It is important to implement strategies that address the needs of the individual. We recommend that you apply these strategies across home, school, and community contexts.
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|Learning and Academics
- Detect underlying skill deficits, such as difficulty with directions.
- Overview books, chapters and sections with students.
- Vary rates and sophistication of presentation.
- Encourage reading with a pencil, underlining, highlighting, color coding, and making notes in margins.
- Emphasize cognitive strategies over rote memory to teach facts, and help students differentiate what must be memorized from what can be figured out.
- Don’t over rely on memory, but emphasize logic.
- Encourage frequent self-testing using flash cards, tapes, etc.
- Provide clear, sequenced review sheets for tests with adequate spacing and clarity.
- Emphasize higher-level thinking skills, such as problem-solving skills and divergent thinking.
- Encourage students to work through a concept to discover the process, details, and deeper understanding.
- Allow student to pace learning.
- Provide access to enrichment, challenge, and rigor.
- Provide exposure to above-grade-level content in mathematics, reading/language arts, science, or social studies, depending on student’s strengths.
- Consider having student temporarily join a giftedness program and monitor performance.
- Use curriculum compacting, activity enrichment, or acceleration to the next grade level.
- When using compacting, conduct pre and post testing to adjust pacing.
- After direct instruction with a group, assign a specific number of practice problems.
- Use skill and strategy instruction and integrate and embed into high-level instruction for a comprehensive approach.
- Use a multisensory approach to instruction.
- Focus on whole-to-part instruction and concepts vs. memorization of isolated facts.
- Use advance organizers, preview instructional units, and concept maps.
- Teach details in context.
- Use mnemonics, visual imagery, visual/verbal cues and prompts, notes, outlines, formula cards, “cheat sheets”, picture vocabulary, and word banks.
- Use open-ended assignments, and allow students to choose or change the product to best illustrate and facilitate understanding of material.
- Use independent study activities, in which students choose a concept they want to study and the teacher facilitates the goals and organization of the content.
- Create learning centers for students to use, which allow students to share special interests with others while learning more about other subjects.
- Use brainstorming techniques to develop thinking processes and ability to solve problems.
- Use tiered lessons and multi-leveled activities, such as tic-tac-toe boards, learning cubes, etc.
- Facilitate discussion of students’ progress of material and ability to articulate their reasoning or conclusion to a problem or question.
- Incorporate cognitive challenges through use of Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Processes.
- Use products that are real and relevant to the student whenever possible.
- Use conferencing to allow student to negotiate, review, and discuss work.
- Create multi-media products, such as dioramas, illustrations, speeches, centers, reports, movies, puppet shows, and plays.
- Allow reasonable and purposeful movement, including flexibility to work standing up.
- Reduce quantity of problems.
- Provide adequate space and graph paper.
- Read aloud word problems.
- Use calculators and charts.
- Use visuals, posters, reference sheets, and formula cards.
- Use 3-D models and adaptive tools to address fine motor difficulties.
- Useverbal elaboration and dictation.
- Teach use of symbols and pictures.
- Avoid asking for oral reading, and provide quiet place to read.
- Use context clues for decoding and / or vocabulary.
- Encourage use of tape recorders for both note-taking and listening comprehension.
- Use recorded textbooks, movies, or videos.
- Allow movement while reading and listening.
- Pair delivery of visual and auditory information.
- Arrange collaborative learning through peer partners or groups.
- Provide adequate time for completion of reading assignment.
- Highlight critical information and preview vocabulary (provide in advance).
- Preview content to activate prior knowledge, and provide summaries.
- Use read aloud software and partner reading.
- Chunk assignments and reduce workload.
- Provide structure for note-taking.
- Use in-class read aloud.
- Provide external representations (e.g. graphic organizers, story maps).
- Providecopies of notes, graphic organizers, outlines to complete, picture notes, and main ideas.
- Use verbal rehearsal.
- Give answers to a worksheet or homework in both visual and auditory forms.
- Provide extra time, reduce workload, and grade for content.
- Use verbal elaboration and provide outlines.
- Have a verbal prewriting conference.
- Provide quiet area to work, and use frequent checks.
- Use task analysis, checklists, rubrics, and examples of model papers.
- Ensure adequate space to write or attach extra paper.
- Reduce visual clutter, fold in half, and assign fewer problems / questions.
- If there are fine motor difficulties, provide an enlarged writing template / outline.
- Provide computer, electronic spellers, or dictation to scribe devices.
- Consider alternatives to writing for demonstrating content knowledge.
- Use an individualized system for spelling, so there is a focus on building vocabulary.
- Use planning books and calendars, homework websites, homework buddy, frequent progress reports, digital recorders, and daily check-in.
- Give daily help with maintenance of notebook and model notebook organization requirements often.
- Use contracts for goal-setting, time-management and pacing of projects and papers.
- Use task analysis and mini-deadlines.
- Label papers, and have a folder, tray, or section for all papers.
- Prompt student to submit work, and implement a clear routine for submitting work.
- Reduce workload or provide extended time.
- Keep assignments visible and accessible (ongoing list of assignments and due dates).
- Use color coding and accordion files.
- Provide time to file things and to clean out (have a place for “old stuff”).
- Have supplies ready, such as copies of texts for home and class.
- Provide study guides and outlines.
- Assign test preparation tasks such as the development of flashcards, writing test questions, practicing problems.
- Preview test questions, focusing on type and length.
- Provide a syllabus emphasizing primary ideas.
- Offer visual organizational strategies such as mind mapping, treeing, or webbing for note- taking or organizing background information.
- Teach research skills, and consider team teaching for major projects and papers.
- Divide assignments into small parts with a definitive time schedule.
- Photocopy research, and highlight main ideas and important details.
- Provide stimulating assignments and multisensory instruction.
- Use rubrics, contracts, observation, and testing, in which students can be involved in the evaluation process by helping to create criteria.
- Use flexibility, choices, communication, positive feedback, respect, and encouragement.
- Provide reasonable or reduced workload, support, and feedback.
- Understand the student’s interests and hobbies.
- Be aware of strengths and needs.
- Encourage student to create a better self-concept by building on strengths and by emphasizing effort.
- Work with parents to comprehend the combination of giftedness and disability.
- Allow student to have choice and a voice in the classroom environment.
- Encourage acceptance of each student’s ideas and opinions.
- Create a safe environment where students can freely brainstorm and suggest ideas.
- When appropriate, allow the class or group to come to conclusions together as a group, instead of all conclusions being teacher directed.
- Use competition in a way that empowers all students through the use of games.
- Facilitate groups where students can work together and interact.
- Establish goals for individual students, small groups, and whole class on assignments.
- Use team building and praise incentives.
- Model appropriate responses to social situations.
- Engage student in role-play opportunities to practice appropriate initiations and responses in social contexts.
- Explain rules / rationales behind social exchanges.
- Explicitly target perspective-taking skills when needed.