It is important to implement strategies that address the needs of the individual. We recommend that you apply these strategies across home, school, and community contexts.
Go to the Site Map for a full list of resources and activities!
|Memory and Cognition
- Repeat instructions and directions as needed and provide one direction at a time.
- Remember that the student may take a longer amount of time to process information.
- Have consistent routines and rules to promote procedural memory.
- Provide student with an outline so they can anticipate content and transition.
- Use pictures or visual cues to alert the student of the need to do something different.
- Practice systematic verbal rehearsal - student may have to "practice" a verbal cue and what is expected.
- Teach memory strategies and memory tricks such as elaborative rehearsal, mnemonics, limericks, etc.
- Use a scribe or note-taker and have notes photocopied at the end of class to give to student.
- Check for understanding - recognition vs. recall.
- Modify work amounts and shorten assignments to the minimum necessary (increase gradually if student is successful).
- Be very specific and to the point - use simple, concrete language.
- Provide specific feedback on responses - state that an answer is correct or needs more input.
- Be aware that students are not likely to raise hands and ask questions.
- Be aware that students may ask the same question over and over because of poor short-term memory.
- Be prepared to accept inconsistencies in performance.
- Alert students to transition between classes (and remind them what class is next).
- Allow student to tape-record lectures.
- Clearly define class requirements, exam dates, and when assignments are due.
- Provide handouts and visual aids.
- Allow student to take notes directly onto an outline.
- Use more than one way to demonstrate or explain information.
- Break information into small steps when teaching a new or relearned skill.
- State lesson objectives, review previous lesson, and summarize periodically.
- Review major points at the conclusion of each class lecture.
- Allow time for clarification of directions and important information.
- Provide study guides or review sheets for exams.
- Provide alternative means for the students to do tasks, such as dictation or oral presentation.
- Provide verbal and visual reminders in class of impending deadlines and due dates.
- Write assignments on the board or pass them out in written form.
- Break tasks down for large projects or papers and set deadlines for each part.
- Allow the student more time to finish schoolwork and tests.
- Give the student written directions for multi-step tasks.
- Show the student how to perform new tasks, and provide examples.
- Have consistent routines and if the routine is going to change, let the student know ahead of time.
- When teaching a new skill, give the student many opportunities to practice the new skill, and check for generalization.
|Social Skills and Emotional Regulation
- Consider a modified schedule and / or a behavior plan.
- Start a behavior modification program for academic and/or social skills and have student chart their progress.
- Be aware that a previously effective behavior plan may not work due to memory deficits.
- Talk with the student ahead of time and let them the discipline plan.
- Have student be prepared for schedule changes, such as late start, substitute teacher, early dismissal, etc.
- Let student carry pictures of family and friends.
- Structure student's activities and schedule to reduce the number of unexpected changes and unstructured periods.
- Explicitly teach coping and de-escalation strategies.
- Engage the student in role-play scenarios to target specific social responses.
|Inattention and Impulsivity
- Allow the student more time to complete tasks and reduce the workload if needed.
- Avoid activities requiring the student to concentrate for long periods of time.
- Keep distractions to a minimum - use study carrels or room dividers as needed.
- Provide direct support in organizational strategies.
- Have student keep a planner or agenda, where all assignments are written down.
- Use a communication book with parents.
- Provide preferential seating.
- Arrange seating to allow for more space between students.
- Provide small group instruction.
- Provide the student with a written schedule and keep the schedule as consistent as possible.
- Provide an area for supplies and books (away from the student's work space).
- Select a classroom buddy.
- Limit task list to 5 things, and when each task is completed immediately erase that task or check it off.
- Gain the student's attention before speaking.
- Provide breaks as needed.
- Question the student to be sure the information was understood, and provide feedback.
- Use cueing systems in the form of assignment books and task cues on student's desk.
- Provide verbal and written instructions.
- Shorten assignments and divide long assignments into parts.
- Use outlines, graphs, flow charts and models.
- Give short frequent quizzes, rather than all-inclusive exams.
- Accompany homework with written instructions.
- Always put written directions in the same place every time.
- Have a written schedule placed where it can be viewed every day.
- Teach student to use a system of reminders such as post it notes, white boards, daily planners, daily schedules, etc.
- Use highlighters to signal important points for easy reviewing.
- When teaching note taking, make sure notes answer all of the "WH" questions.
|Speech & Language
- Use mnemonic devices such as rhymes or songs to remember names.
- Read books and other materials that have pictures in them.
- Allow student to have processing time when you ask questions.
- Provide directions one at a time.
- Give directions in verbal and written form.
- Realize that the student may get tired quickly, and let the student rest as needed.
- Be aware of and use the student's best sensory modality (e.g. auditory, visual).
- Be aware of any medications the student takes and its side effects.
- Provide preferential seating if the student has visual difficulties.
- Be aware of any gross or fine motor difficulties.